Production of oven-baked wheat chips enriched with red lentil: an optimization study by response surface methodology
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Chips are the most common snacks in human diet and generally are produced by frying. However, due to their high carbohydrate, fat and salt content, they are considered as unhealthy snacks. In this study, it is aimed to develop red lentil enriched chips for use as a healthy and nutritious snack food. Due to the health concerns about high fat content of the fried chips, the samples were oven-baked instead of frying. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of process parameters (red lentil flour ratio, baking temperature and time) on physicochemical, textural, nutritional, and bioactive properties of the chips. The samples were also evaluated in terms of taste, odor, crispness, and general acceptance by the panelists. The highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and hydroxymethyl furfural content was achived with the sample supplememented with 50% red lentil flour and baked at the highest temperature and time used in the study (190 degrees C, 9 min). Red lentil flour supplementation increased protein and resistant starch content of the chips. The highest resistant starch content of the samples and lowest in vitro glycemic index value were achieved with the sample prepared with 50% red lentil flour supplementation. These results of this study proved that red lentil is a good source to be used for enrichment of oven-baked wheat chips as a novel snack food with high nutritional values and low in vitro glycemic index.