Comparison of SPT and V-s-based liquefaction analyses: a case study in Ercis (Van, Turkey)
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Liquefaction which is one of the most destructive ground deformations occurs during an earthquake in saturated or partially saturated silty and sandy soils, which may cause serious damages such as settlement and tilting of structures due to shear strength loss of soils. Standard (SPT) and cone (CPT) penetration tests as well as the shear wave velocity (V-s)-based methods are commonly used for the determination of liquefaction potential. In this research, it was aimed to compare the SPT and V-s-based liquefaction analysis methods by generating different earthquake scenarios. Accordingly, the Ercis residential area, which was mostly affected by the 2011 Van earthquake (M-w = 7.1), was chosen as the model site. Ercis (Van, Turkey) and its surroundings settle on an alluvial plain which consists of silty and sandy layers with shallow groundwater level. Moreover, Caldiran, Ercis-Kocapinar and Van Fault Zones are the major seismic sources of the region which have a significant potential of producing large magnitude earthquakes. After liquefaction assessments, the liquefaction potential in the western part of the region and in the coastal regions nearby the Lake Van is found to be higher than the other locations. Thus, it can be stated that the soil tightness and groundwater level dominantly control the liquefaction potential. In addition, the lateral spreading and sand boiling spots observed after the 23rd October 2011 Van earthquake overlap the scenario boundaries predicted in this study. Eventually, the use of V-s-based liquefaction analysis in collaboration with the SPT results is quite advantageous to assess the rate of liquefaction in a specific area.