Are shocks to electricity consumption transitory or permanent? Sub-national evidence from Turkey
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This is the first study that aims to investigate policy shocks to energy consumption in terms of unit root properties by sector. More precisely, we analyze the stationarity of electricity consumption for 12 regions of Turkey by four sectors in addition to total electricity consumption by region (for a total of 60 cases). We find that 48 cases are non-stationary and 12 cases are stationary. Thus, policies to decrease or stimulate the use of electricity have permanent effects on electricity consumption in 80% of the cases and transitory effects in the rest. Findings and policy implications are further discussed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.